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- Welcome to the Marine Exchange of Southern California
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- Energy News Monitor | Volume XV; Issue 39
- Related Articles
- Table XV from Climate, air pollution, and mortality. - Semantic Scholar
This important conference brings together contributions from scientists from around the world to present recent work on various aspects of air pollution phenomena. Notable in each of the conferences in this series has been the opportunity to foster scientific exchange between participants. Each meeting has provided a further opportunity for identifying new areas of air pollution science demanding collaborative investigation.
These meetings have attracted outstanding contributions from leading researchers. The papers selected for presentation and included in the Conference Proceedings have been permanently stored in the WIT eLibrary www. These collected papers provide an invaluable record of the development of science and policy pertaining to air pollution. The following list covers some of the topics to be presented at Air Pollution Papers on other subjects related to the objectives of the conference are also welcome.
Residual exposures and the inability of these systems to direct air flow away from workers usually require the supplemental use of respirators. Local exhaust ventilation is required for smaller painting, metal treating and solvent cleaning operations, for laboratory chemical work and for some plastics lay-up work. Dilution ventilation is usually adequate only in areas with minimal chemical usage or as a supplement to local exhaust ventilation.
Significant air exchanges during winter can result in excessively dry interior air. In large, complex manufacturing areas, attention must be paid to properly locating ventilation exhaust and intake points to avoid re-entraining contaminants.
Precision manufacturing of aerospace products requires clear, organized and well controlled work environments. Containers, barrels and tanks containing chemicals must be labelled as to the potential hazards of the materials. First aid information must be readily available. Emergency response and spill control information also must be available on the MSDS or similar data sheet.
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Hazardous work areas must be placarded and access controlled and verified. Airframe manufacturers, in both the civilian and defence sectors, have come to rely increasingly on composite materials in the construction of both interior and structural components. Generations of composite materials have been increasingly integrated into production throughout the industry, particularly in the defence sector, where they are valued for their low radar reflectivity.
This rapidly developing manufacturing medium typifies the problem of design technology outpacing public health efforts. Specific hazards of the resin or fabric component of the composite prior to combination and resin cure differs from the hazards of cured materials. Additionally, partially cured materials pre-pregs may continue to preserve the hazard characteristics of the resin components during the various steps leading to producing a composite part AIA Toxicological considerations of major resin categories are provided in table 2.
Toxicological considerations of major components of resins utilized in aerospace composite materials. Other chemicals of diverse toxicological nature may be present as curing agents, diluents and additives. Varying amounts of these materials are present in the partially cured resin, and trace quantities in the cured materials. Release of volatile resin components may be significant prior to and during initial reaction of resin and curing agent, but may also occur during the processing of materials which go through more than one level of cure.
The release of these components tends to be greater in elevated temperature conditions or in poorly ventilated work areas and may range from trace to moderate levels. Dermal exposure to the resin components in the pre-cure state is often an important part of total exposure and therefore should not be neglected. Off-gassing of resin degradation products may occur during various machining operations which create heat at the surface of the cured material.
These degradation products have yet to be fully characterized, but tend to vary in chemical structure as a function of both temperature and resin type.
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Particles may be generated by machining of cured materials or by cutting pre-pregs which contain residues of resin materials which are released when the material is disturbed. Exposure to gases produced by oven cure has been noted where, through improper design or faulty operation, autoclave exhaust ventilation fails to remove these gases from the work environment.
Energy News Monitor | Volume XV; Issue 39
Additionally, information on the relative contribution of fibrogenic dusts from various machining operations is still under investigation. The various composite operations and hazards have been characterized AIA and are listed in table 3. Aerospace industries have been significantly affected by the enormous growth in environmental and community noise regulations passed primarily in the United States and Europe since the s.
These regulations typically enforce the use of best available technology, whether new materials or processes or end of stack control equipment. Additionally, universal issues such as ozone depletion and global warming are forcing changes to traditional operations by banning chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons entirely unless exceptional conditions exist. Early legislation had little impact on aerospace operations until the s. The continued growth of the industry and the concentration of operations around airports and industrialized areas made regulation attractive.
The industry underwent a revolution in terms of programmes required to track and manage toxic emissions to the environment with the intent to ensure safety. Wastewater treatment from metal finishing and aircraft maintenance became standard at all large facilities. Hazardous waste segregation, classification, manifesting and, later, treatment prior to disposal were instituted where rudimentary programmes had previously existed.
Clean-up programmes at disposal sites became major economic issues for many companies as costs rose to many millions at each site.
Chemical emissions regulations affect essentially all chemical processing, engine and auxiliary power unit, fuelling and ground service vehicle operations. Emissions there will be tracked daily to ensure limits on total emissions of volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide are below the overall total permitted. In Sweden, a tax has been levied on aircraft carbon dioxide emissions due to their global warming potential. Similar regulations in some regions have resulted in a near total elimination of vapour degreasing using chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethane due to the historically high levels of emissions from open-topped degreasers and the ozone depleting potential and toxicity of 1,1,1 trichloroethane.
The standard requires compliance by September The processes and materials most affected are manual wipe and flush cleaning, primers and topcoats, paint removal and chemical milling maskants. The regulation allows process change or control and charges local authorities with enforcement of material, equipment, work practice and record-keeping requirements. The significance of these rules is the imposition of the best practices with little regard to cost on every aerospace manufacturer. They force a comprehensive change to low vapour pressure solvent cleaning materials and to coatings low in solvent content, as well as application equipment technology as shown in table 1.
Some exceptions were made where product safety or personnel safety due to fire hazard and so on would be compromised. These have been shown to be photochemical reactive and precursors to ground-level ozone formation. Summaries of typical chemical hazards and emission-control practices due to the impact of environmental regulations on manufacturing and maintenance operations in the United States are provided in table 2 and table 3 respectively.
European regulations have for the most part not kept pace in the area of toxic air emissions, but have placed greater emphasis on the elimination of toxins, such as cadmium, from the products and the accelerated phase-out of ozone depleter compounds. The Netherlands require operators to justify the use of cadmium as essential for flight safety, for example.
Overspray of solids and evaporation of solvents. Ozone-depleting compounds ODCs chlorofluorocarbons, trichloroethane and others. Some may have full treatment. Work done out of sequence or touch up, etc. Noise regulations have followed a similar course.
The United States Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization have set aggressive targets for the improvement of jet engine noise reduction e. Elimination of noisy Stage 2 aircraft is mandated by 31 December in the United States, when Stage 3 rules take effect. Another hazard posed by aerospace operation is the threat of falling debris. Items such as waste, aircraft parts and satellites descend with varying degrees of frequency. The most common in terms of frequency is the so-called blue ice which results when leaking toilet system drains allow waste to freeze outside the aircraft and then separate and fall.
Aviation authorities are considering rules to require additional inspection and correction of leaking drains. Other hazards such as satellite debris may occasionally be hazardous e. Most companies have formed organizations to address emission reduction. Goals for environmental performance are established and policies are in place. Management of the permits, safe material handling and transportation, disposal and treatment require engineers, technicians and administrators.
Environmental engineers, chemical engineers and others are employed as researchers and administrators. In addition, programmes exist to help remove the source of chemical and noise emissions within the design or the process. The characteristic assembly line for the finished vehicle is supported by separate manufacturing facilities for various parts and components. Vehicle components may be manufactured within the parent enterprise or purchased from separate corporate entities. The industry is a century old.
Production in the North American, European and since the Second World War Japanese sectors of the industry became concentrated in a few corporations which maintained branch assembly operations in South America, Africa and Asia for sales to those markets.
Table XV from Climate, air pollution, and mortality. - Semantic Scholar
International trade in finished vehicles has increased since the s, and trade in original equipment and replacement auto parts from facilities in the developing world is increasingly important. Manufacture of heavy trucks, buses and farm and construction equipment are distinct businesses from car production, although some auto producers manufacture for both markets, and farm and construction equipment are also made by the same corporations.
This line of products uses large diesel engines rather than gasoline engines. Production rates are typically slower, volumes smaller and processes less mechanized. The types of facilities, the production processes and the typical components in car production are shown in table 1. Figure 1provides a flow chart for the steps in automobile production. The standard industrial classifications that are found in this industry include: motor vehicles and car body assembly, truck and bus body assembly, motor vehicle parts and accessories, iron and steel foundries, non-ferrous foundries, automotive stampings, iron and steel forgings, engine electrical equipment, auto and apparel trimmings and others.
The number of people employed in the manufacture of parts exceeds that employed in assembly. These processes are supported by facilities for design of the vehicle, construction and maintenance of plant and equipment, clerical and managerial functions and a dealer and repair function. In the United States, car dealers, service stations and wholesale auto parts facilities employ about twice as many workers as the manufacturing functions. Machining, stamping and assembly, including brakes, suspension parts, heating and air conditioning, pollution-control equipment, vehicle lighting.
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The workforce is predominantly male.