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- Humans: from the beginning: From the first apes to the first cities
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- Human Evolution | potabubciawood.gq
Next he was assigned to the city's "command post" — the communications centre for Ape Management , and its lockup for disobedient apes. He was also selected to mate with a female chimp. When Caesar learned that Armando died while in custody, he decided enough is enough, and began plotting an ape revolt, conspiring with other apes and driving them to turn on their masters. In the script, and in Marvel Comics ' adaptation of Conquest , one of his aides is Aldo a gorilla - Cornelius had previously declared Aldo to be the first ape to say "No!
Aldo the gorilla would have a prominent role in the sequel. When Caesar was belatedly traced and discovered not to have been part of any ape shipment, he was captured and tortured by Breck, to see if he was indeed the offspring of two talking apes. MacDonald excused himself from the scene, and changed the breaker settings for the electroshock table Caesar was wired to.
He couldn't prevent Caesar from being shocked to where he finally choked out the words "Have pity! Believed dead, Caesar killed the handler assigned to dispose of him, then threw the switch that opened all the cages in the ape lock-up, and the revolt began. Hours later, much of the city was in flames, the police and military had been beaten down, and the apes were in control, as Caesar predicted would happen around the world when word spread. MacDonald tried to dissuade Caesar from further violence, while Lisa became the next ape to speak, telling Caesar "No!
Centuries later, human and ape children gathered around a statue of Caesar, now a legend who has been dead for six hundred years, as a Lawgiver told them the story of how Caesar fought another battle, years after the first, that both solidified his position as ape leader, and convinced him to give a joint ape-human society a chance, instead of one species dominating the other. Having overthrown human society and left it to destroy itself, Caesar led the freed apes and sympathetic humans to found a new colony.
This was threatened by both vengeful mutated humans and by petty rivalries among the apes, especially from General Aldo, who was jealous of Caesar's leadership and hateful of humans. Caesar overcame his obstacles to try to ensure peace between the species.
He had become the central figure in the apes saga - the intelligent ape from the future who created a Planet of the Apes. The Lawgiver quoted to Taylor had laid down the command that humans were to be shunned and driven out; the sight of this Lawgiver regarding the children of both species as alike is persuasive that history had indeed been changed, and that Caesar had given the world a better future assuming, of course, that the Lawgiver's teachings would not be distorted by later generations.
Caesar statue from Battle for the Planet of the Apes. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. For the Chernin Entertainment movies character, see Caesar. And in that smoke, from this day forward, my people will crouch and conspire and plot and plan for the inevitable day of Man's downfall - the day when he finally and self-destructively turns his weapons against his own kind. The day of the writing in the sky, when your cities lie buried under radioactive rubble!
When the sea is a dead sea, and the land is a wasteland out of which I will lead my people from their captivity! And we will build our own cities in which there will be no place for humans except to serve our ends! In some places the rift is thousands of feet deep and exposes the last fifteen million years of the earth 's history.
Here, fossil remains of our earliest ancestors can be found.
Humans: from the beginning: From the first apes to the first cities
Humankind appears to have first evolved in Africa, and the fossils of early humans, or hominids, who lived between five million and two million years ago, come entirely from Africa. Starting with the modern human skull, it is possible to trace our ancestry back millions of years. As we travel back in time, our ancestors look less and less like us and begin to resemble our closest relatives, the African apes.
Because our physical and genetic characteristics are similar, evolutionary theory offers evidence that ancestral humans had a very close relationship to a group of primates, the apes. Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and the large apes of Africa share a common ancestor that lived between eight million and five million years ago. Humans, or hominids, belong to the scientific order named Primates, a group of more than species of animals that includes the monkeys, lemurs, and apes.
Modern humans have a number of physical characteristics resembling our ape ancestry. The social systems of humans also share similarities with the African apes and other primates, such as baboons, chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys. Chimps live, groom, feed, and hunt together and form strong family bonds. Early humankind probably had a similar lifestyle. Scientists now know that nearly 98 percent of the genes in humans and chimpanzees are identical, making chimps the closest living biological relative of humans.
However, there are fundamental differences between modern humans and their primate relatives. The human brain is larger and more complex, giving humankind the ability to communicate through language, art, and symbols, to walk upright, and to develop a throat structure that makes speech possible. One of the earliest defining human traits is bipedalism, the ability to walk upright on two legs. This characteristic evolved over four million years ago. Other important human characteristics, such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language and culture, developed more recently.
Many of what we consider advanced traits, such as art, religion, and different expressions of cultural diversity, emerged during the past , years. Most paleoanthropologists today recognize ten to fifteen different groups of early humans. They do not agree, however, about how they are related or which ones simply died out along the way.
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Researchers also disagree about how to describe, identify, and classify these early human species, and what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species. Nearly five million years ago in Africa, an apelike species evolved with two important traits that distinguished it from the apes.
This species had small canine teeth next to the four front teeth , and it was bipedal , meaning it could walk on two legs instead of four. Scientists refer to these earliest human species as australopithecines, or australopith for short. The fossil record shows that there is not an orderly sequence leading from one form to another.
Several groups lived at the same time and characteristics developed at different rates; therefore the human family tree suggests a long and complex past. Fossils from several early australopith species that lived between four million and two million years ago clearly demonstrate a variety of adaptations that mark the transition between ape to human.
Prior to four million years ago, fossil remains are scarce and incomplete; where available, however, they do show a primitive combination of ape and human features. Most of the key characteristics that stand out as distinctly human are related to their bipedal stance. The australopiths had an S-shaped spine that allowed for balance when standing.
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The opening through which the spinal cord attached to the brain was positioned more forward, allowing for the head to be balanced over the upright spine. The pelvic bone was shorter and broader than in apes, giving the pelvis a bowl shape that supported the internal organs when standing or walking upright. The upper legs angled inward allowing the knees to support the body while standing or walking. Shorter and less flexible toes functioned as rigid levers for pushing off the ground with each step. Most early species had small canine teeth, a projecting face, and a small brain.
They weighed between 22 and 37 kilograms 60 to pounds , and were 0. Males were generally larger than females. Both had curved fingers and long thumbs with a wide range of movement. The apes, in comparison, have longer, more curved, and stronger fingers that make them well adapted for hanging and swinging from branches. Apes also have short thumbs, which limits their ability to manipulate small objects. There were at least two major groups of australopithecine, one with very large teeth and heavy jaw muscles referred to as robust, and another referred to as gracile.
The main difference was in the size of the jaws and teeth.
Beyond that, there was no appreciable difference in body size. The evidence suggests that the large-toothed robust group ate primarily plant foods, where as the gracile group concentrated on a more diverse diet that included meat. Details known about each group are delineated below. After researchers unearthed the australopithecines, the next major "missing link" to be found was Homo habilis, an early representative of modern humankind. This creature was bipedal, fully upright, and had the capacity to use forearms for handling tools and weapons.
These fossil specimens show an increased brain size of cubic centimeters 37 cubic inches , and a jaw and tooth size more closely resembling modern humans. Any residual physical traits for climbing had also disappeared.
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Cut marks on bones suggest the use of tools to prepare meat. They probably retained some of the skeletal characteristics of the australopithecines that made them great climbers. They may have spent considerable time in trees foraging, sleeping, and avoiding predators. They were the first of our relatives to have opposable thumbs, and the fossil skulls show physical traces of asymmetrical brain development, which is reflected in the way that stone tools were shaped.
Some researchers feel that Homo habilis had a large enough brain to have the rudimentary capacity for speech that may have encouraged cooperation and sharing amongst members of a group. That our distant H. The technology of these first toolmakers existed for more than , years. Next in the story of human evolution , we find a group represented by Homo ergastor, a recently recognized African link between Homo habilis and Homo erectus. This group lived from about 1.