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The Truman Presidency (Woodrow Wilson Center Press)

The Truman Presidency. The Truman Presidency : Symposium : Papers. Program on American Society and Politics. All rights reserved. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password? Showing all editions for 'The Truman presidency'. Year 1 10 2 16 Language English. Displaying Editions 1 - 10 out of The Truman presidency by Michael James Lacey;.

Print book. The Truman presidency by Michael J Lacey;. Print book : Conference publication. Cambridge : Woodrow Wilson Internat. Aside from the establishment of the League of Nations and the establishment of a lasting peace, Wilson's other main goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to use self-determination as the primary basis of international borders. Germany was required to pay war reparations and subjected to military occupation in the Rhineland. Additionally, a clause in the treaty specifically named Germany as responsible for the war.

Wilson agreed to the creation of mandates in former German and Ottoman territories, allowing the European powers and Japan to establish de facto colonies in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The Japanese acquisition of German interests in the Shandong Peninsula of China proved especially unpopular , as it undercut Wilson's promise of self-government.

However, several new states were created in Central Europe and the Balkans, including Poland, Yugoslavia , and Czechoslovakia. Some German leaders favored repudiating the treaty, but Germany signed the treaty on June 28, Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles required the support of two-thirds of the Senate, a difficult proposition given that Republicans held a narrow majority in the Senate after the elections. Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the opposition to the treaty; he despised Wilson and hoped to humiliate him in the ratification battle. The debate over the treaty centered around a debate over the American role in the world community in the post-war era, and senators fell into three main groups.

The first group, consisting of most Democrats, favored the treaty. Some of these irreconcilables opposed the treaty for its failure to emphasize decolonization and disarmament, while others feared surrendering American freedom of action to an international organization. To bolster public support for ratification, Wilson barnstormed the Western states, but he returned to the White House in late September due to health problems.

Cary Grayson. Bert E. Park, a neurosurgeon who examined Wilson's medical records after his death, writes that Wilson's illness affected his personality in various ways, making him prone to "disorders of emotion, impaired impulse control, and defective judgment. For her influence in the administration, some have described Edith Wilson as "the first female President of the United States. Throughout late , Wilson's inner circle concealed the severity of his health issues. Many expressed qualms about Wilson's fitness for the presidency at a time when the League fight was reaching a climax, and domestic issues such as strikes, unemployment, inflation and the threat of Communism were ablaze.

No one close to Wilson was willing to certify, as required by the Constitution, his "inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office. Wilson's leadership in domestic policy in the aftermath of the war was complicated by his focus on the Treaty of Versailles, opposition from the Republican-controlled Congress, and, beginning in late , Wilson's illness. Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. Major strikes in the steel, coal, and meatpacking industries disrupted the economy in These fears were inflamed by the United States anarchist bombings , which were conducted by the anarchist Luigi Galleani and his followers.

Mitchell Palmer convinced Wilson to delay amnesty for those who had been convicted of war-time sedition, and he launched the Palmer Raids to suppress radical organizations. Prohibition developed as an unstoppable reform during the war, but Wilson played only a minor role in its passage. The amendment was ratified by the states in , becoming the Eighteenth Amendment. Wilson personally favored women's suffrage , but early in his presidency he held that it was a state matter, partly because of strong opposition in the South to any constitutional amendment.

Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?

Wilson continually pressured the Senate to vote for the amendment, telling senators that its ratification was vital to winning the war. Despite his ill health, Wilson continued to entertain the possibility of running for a third term.

Many of Wilson's advisers tried to convince him that his health precluded another campaign, but Wilson nonetheless asked Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby to nominate him for president at the Democratic National Convention. While the convention strongly endorsed Wilson's policies, Democratic leaders were unwilling to support the ailing Wilson for a third term, and instead nominated a ticket consisting of Governor James M.

Harding of Ohio. Wilson largely stayed out of the campaign, although he endorsed Cox and continued to advocate for U. Harding won a landslide victory, taking After the end of his second term in , Wilson and his wife moved from the White House to a town house in the Kalorama section of Washington, D. Wilson experienced more success with his return to writing, and he published short works on the international impact of the American Revolution and the rise of totalitarianism.

Harry S. Truman

Wilson's health did not markedly improve after leaving office; his left arm and left leg were both paralyzed, and he frequently suffered digestive tract issues. Wilson was the first Southerner to be elected president since Zachary Taylor in , and his ascension to the presidency was celebrated by Southern segregationists.


Several historians have spotlighted consistent examples in the public record of Wilson's overtly racist policies and political appointments, such as segregationists he placed in his Cabinet. Scott Berg argues that Wilson accepted segregation as part of a policy to "promote racial progress Vardaman or Benjamin R. Tillman , but he was insensitive to African-American feelings and aspirations. Wilson continued to appoint African Americans to positions that had traditionally been filled by blacks, overcoming opposition from many Southern senators. Burleson urged the president to establish segregated government offices.

Wilson's War Department drafted hundreds of thousands of blacks into the army, giving them equal pay with whites. But in accord with military policy from the Civil War through the Second World War, they segregated them into all-black units with white officers, and kept the great majority out of combat. This migration sparked race riots , including the East St. Louis riots of In response to these riots, but only after much public outcry, Wilson asked Attorney General Thomas Watt Gregory if the federal government could intervene to "check these disgraceful outrages.

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The federal government did not become involved. In terms of Reconstruction , Wilson held the common Southern view that the South was demoralized by Northern carpetbaggers and that overreach on the part of the Radical Republicans justified extreme measures to reassert democratic, white national and state governments. Griffith 's film The Birth of a Nation was the first motion picture to be screened in the White House. Wilson, and only Wilson, is quoted in the film three times as a scholar of American history, and made no protest over the misquotation of his words.

After seeing the film, Wilson felt betrayed by Dixon, as he felt that Dixon had misrepresented his views. Wilson's book did try to explain why many Southerners joined the Klan, but Wilson personally rejected the Ku Klux Klan and lynching as un-American. Its exhibition at the White House was a courtesy extended to an old acquaintance. Historians reject the allegation first made in by a magazine writer who said that Wilson also remarked, "My only regret is that it is all so terribly true.

Wilson is generally ranked by historians and political scientists as one of the better presidents.

Presidential Press Conferences - White House Historical Association

Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Notwithstanding his accomplishments in office, Wilson has received criticism for his record on race relations and civil liberties, for his interventions in Latin America, and for his failure to win ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Bullitt, Jr.

Harry S. Truman: The Soldier from Independence - D.M. Giangreco

Their controversial view of Wilson was that he was a naive American politician whose foreign policy ideas were driven by religious fanaticism. Sigmund Freud and William C. Bullit, Jr. Many conservatives have attacked Wilson for his role in expanding the federal government. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in Wilson's presidential papers and his personal library are at the Library of Congress. The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation is a non-profit that provides grants for teaching fellowships.

The Woodrow Wilson Foundation was established to honor Wilson's legacy, but it was terminated in One of Princeton's six colleges is named Wilson College. Numerous schools, including several high schools , bear Wilson's name. In , Darryl F. Zanuck of 20th Century Fox produced a film titled Wilson. The largest denomination of U. One year after Wilson's death the U. Post Office issued the first postage stamp honoring the late president. Since then, four more stamps were issued in Wilson's honor, the last being issued in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other people named Woodrow Wilson, see Woodrow Wilson disambiguation. Ellen Axson m. Edith Bolling m. This article is part of a series about. Daughters Jessie and Margaret. Daughter Eleanor. See also: Gilded Age. Main article: United States presidential election.